The PPCC approach in alternative to antibiotics (Promotive, Preventive, Corrective, Curative approach)
Introduction of antibiotics in poultry
During the last decade, herbs and phytogenic compounds have attracted a lot of attention for their potential role as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in monogastric animals. AGPs have been an integral part of the poultry feed industry for more than fifty years. However, AGPs alternatives have been searched since antibiotics prolonged use has precipitated the development of resistant strains within groups of primary pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria and the breakdown of the symbiosis between animals and desirable flora. The industrialization of poultry husbandry and the improvement of feed nutritional efficiency have accelerated the introduction of feed additives which became widely used in animal feed for many decades.
Impacts of antibiotics
In 1950, a group of United States scientists found that adding antibiotics to animal feed increases the growth rate of livestock. The use of antibiotics in poultry feed as a growth promoter is beneficial in improvement of production parameters and diseases prevention. However this large utilization has led to the increasing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and the accumulation of antibiotic residues in animal products and in the environment. This situation requires the world to restrict using AGPs in animal feed. This practice has been banned in Europe since 2006.
Antibiotic use in livestock
An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. (Drugs that kill bacteria are referred to as bacteriocidal; those that slow the growth of bacteria are referred to as bacteriostatic.) Antibiotics are chemicals produced by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.There are many different kinds of antibiotics, and they destroy bacteria in different ways.
Major classes of antibiotics involved in poultry production include the following:
Boon and bane of antibiotics
Since the time of discovery, antibiotics have played vital roles in the prevention, control and treatment of infectious diseases for humans and animals. China produces and consumes the most antibiotics of all countries. Half of the antibiotics manufactured in China are used in the production of livestock. In 2012 India manufactured about a third of the total amount of antibiotics in the world. Most of the meat animals raised in United States have received drugs as a routine part of their daily growth, either through feed or water they drink. They are given not only for prevention and cure, but also to increase the weight on animals.
However the unreasonable use of antibiotics has given rise to the fear of the development of resistance to
certain bacteria like Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and Escherichia coli, which may lead to the transfer of resistant bacteria and its resistant factors from animals to humans. Due to this concern, Sweden and European Union member nations banned all antibiotic growth promoters. Thus the ban of in-feed use of antibiotics has led to increase of infections in animals and thereby decrease in animal production. In-order to overcome this, a quality feed and potal water with proper hygiene should be provided to ensure the production of nutritious animal products with desired organoleptic properties.
Phytogenics, a better replacement for antibiotics
Phytogenics are a group of natural growth promoters (NGPs) or non-antibiotic growth promoters used as feed additives, derived from herbs, spices or other plants. In recent years, the use of additives of natural origin in animal and human...
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