Salmovac 440 - A step ahead in food safety
Salmovac 440: Complete protection against Salmonella Enteritidis & Salmonella Typhimurium
Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium
During the early years of the last three decades, the animal and public health problems associated with Salmonella in poultry increased to such an extend to become major political issues, of which the general public become very aware. Salmonella enterica infects different hosts and is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in humans and a wide variety of animals. Food animals in particular have been identified as reservoirs for nontyphoid Salmonella infections. The main vehicle for the transmission of SE to human is the chicken egg. In chickens, SE colonizes internal organs as well as the tissues of the reproductive tract including the ovaries, oviduct, cloacal and vaginal tissues.
SE from the ovaries can contaminate the yolk in some eggs, while the majority of Salmonella bacteria are deposited from the reproductive tract to the albumen (egg white) close to the yolk membrane. The contaminating bacteria survive in the albumen as the eggshell forms and persists after eggs are laid. There is continuing interest in finding ways of preventing flock infection and, hence, contamination of poultry products with Salmonella enterica. Control measures are difficult to use effectively because numerous potential sources of Salmonella infection and product contamination exist in an integrated poultry enterprise. Control of Salmonella infections on poultry farms needs to begin with good farming practices and appropriate management associated with strict sanitary measures.
Salmonella control strategies fall into three main groups: 1. Pre-harvest phase (breeding farms, 2. hatcheries, 3. layer and broiler farms).
Harvest phase (catching and transport, egg collection and transport). Post harvest phase (at the slaughter house, egg collection station, at retail and in the consumer’s kitchen or restaurants).
Salmonella colonization of the GI tract: Microbial colonization of the GI tract normally begins soon after hatching and especially when chicks start eating. Several factors affect the susceptibility of chickens to Salmonella colonization: a. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds, b. Survival of Salmonella during passage through the gastric barrier with colonization depending on Salmonella strain and challenge dose, c. Health and disease status of the bird, d. Competition between Salmonella and other bacteria, e. Environmental stresses that increase susceptibility to colonization, f. Any medication or antimicrobial feed additives that change the composition of the microbiota in the GI tract, thereby increasing host susceptibility to colonization.
In poultry, the ceca are favored sites for colonization by entero-pathogens, such as Salmonella, because chemical and physical conditions are relatively constant, and there is an abundant supply of nutrients from endogenous and exogenous sources. However, the ceca also contain the largest and most complex microbiota of any region of the GI tract, and it is with these organisms that salmonellas must compete for their survival.
The vaccine strain of Salmovac 440
The vaccine is based on the strain S. Enteritidis 441/014 adenine-histidine auxotroph.
Auxotrophy (ancient Greek:αυξάνω “to increase” & τροφή: “nourishment” is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth. Auxotrophs require to be on medium with the amino acids that they cannot produce.The vaccine strain S. Enteritidis 441/014 is adenine-histidine auxotrophic means that it would need to be on a...
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