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Liq-biotic: Polyherbal Antidiarrheal and gut function modulator for pigs.

Liq-biotic: Polyherbal Antidiarrheal and gut function modulator for pigs.

“All disease begins with the gut.”- Hippocrates

Post weaning diarrhoea or problems related to gastro-intestinal tract is one of the most frequent causes of heavy economic losses in pig herds. The major bacteria which causes diarrhoea are E. coli and members of the genera Clostridium, Lawsonia and Brachyspira. The important viruses involved are coronaviruses and rotaviruses. Numerous morphological and functional alteration of the small intestine, changes in intestinal colonization with the predominance of E. coli  and weakening of the immune system is the cause of diarrhoea and enteritis in the growing pigs.

Intestinal microflora in piglets:

Intestinal microflora contains a high number of various species of bacteria involved in the process of digestion. Two factors which are the determinant of microbial composition.

Autogenic Factor: Mutual interaction between host and the microorganism and among other organism is termed as autogenic factors.

Allogenic factor: pH in the stomach, digestive enzymes, intestinal peristalsis, nutrients and immunity of the host are termed allogenic factors.

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The predominance of beneficial species of microorganisms over pathogens is essential for the stability of the immune system of the intestines and consequently of the entire body. In a well-balanced microbial environment, members of the following genera prevail, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Peptostreptococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Porphyromona, while the numbers of coliform bacteria E. coli and Clostridium sp. are lower. Due to a relatively high pH value in the stomach, members of the genus Lactobacillus are more commonly found in the non-secretory part of the stomach, from which they further spread to the small intestine. Anaerobic conditions, favorable temperature, pH and slow passage of the digesta are the preconditions for the presence of large numbers of bacteria in the large intestine and caecum, up to 1010 CFU/g. In the caecum, Gram-negative bacteria predominate, whilst Gram-positive bacteria in the colon outnumber these.

Previously health strategies widely used antibiotic growth promoters to reduce enteric infection and the occurrence of pathogens able to adhere to the intestinal mucosa. Due to the fact that the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has been banned and that the expansion of this policy to other countries can now be expected, intensive research has focused on the development of alternative strategies with the aim of maintenance of animal health and performance. After the ban on antibiotic growth promoters, natural feed additives (plants and spices) started to be used as alternatives in broiler and pig diets. Plant extracts and essential oils have been exploited in animal nutrition, particularly for their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-

oxidative and anti-parasite properties. 

        The antibacterial activity of essential oils depends on their chemical composition and concentration. There is a synergistic effect of plant extracts and essential oils but their correct combination and appropriate dosage is very important to get the desired positive results.

 Regarding the prevention of diarrheal diseases, it is important to...

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