2016 BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey Results for Swine Feed
Mycotoxins are known to have a broad range of negative effects on animals. These secondary metabolites produced by fungi infect all types of grains, and are produced either on the field following plant stress brought by damage or droughts, or during storage.
Figure 1: The negative effects of mycotoxins on pigs.
Since 2004, BIOMIN has conducted an extensive annual survey global survey to gauge the occurrence of major mycotoxins in finished feed and raw commodities. The survey is conducted in cooperation with world-leading research organizations in the field of mycotoxins and uses state of the art technology, including LC/MS-MS. The 2016 edition of the BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey covers over 16000 samples from 81 countries.
In this article we focus on the mycotoxin contamination of common swine diet ingredients. 2016 saw a quite high incidence of mycotoxins, coupled with high average values in some commodities.
Figure 2: Worldwide mycotoxin occurrence in main swine feed ingredients.
77% of all corn (maize) samples worldwide tested for deoxynivalenol (DON) in 2016, making it the most prevalent mycotoxin for any ingredient surveyed. The worldwide average concentration of DON was 1595 parts per billion (ppb). Levels of DON above 900 ppb are considered high risk for piglets and values above 1000 ppb are considered high risk for all kinds of pigs (sows, growers and finishers). The second most prevalent mycotoxin in 2016 was fumonisin (FUM), detected in 73% of corn samples worldwide.
The average concentration of fumonisins was 2,017 ppb, a value far above the high risk threshold of 1,500 ppb for swine. Zearalenone (ZEN) was detected in 50% of corn samples at an average concentration of 334 ppb, a value considered high risk for pigs. Aflatoxin (Afla), T-2 toxin and Ochratoxin A (OTA) were detected in 14%, 13% and 8% of corn samples worldwide, respectively. The average values of Afla and T-2 were 39 ppb and 69 ppb respectively, values that are considered medium risk to pigs.
70% of barley samples worldwide were contaminated with DON, at an average value of 553 ppb, which poses a high risk for piglet and a medium risk for sows, growers and finishers. The second most prevalent mycotoxin in barley samples worldwide was T-2, detected in 33% of samples at an average concentration of 32 ppb. ZEN was detected in 28% of the samples analyzed at an average concentration of 234 ppb, a value that represents a medium risk for swine. FUM, OTA and Afla were detected in 7%, 6% and 2% of samples respectively. The average concentration of Afla was 76 ppb, a value that is considered medium risk in swine.
As for the other commodities, in wheat DON was the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide in 2016 and was detected in 46% of samples. At an average concentration of 960 ppb this mycotoxin poses a...
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